EXPLORING MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS VARIATION IN GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA: A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
Keywords:Gomphrena globosa, Nettle-leaved, morphological, weed, correlation, regression, PCA
Gomphrena globosa L. is a weed threatening important crops like wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane, and cotton. It competes with these crops for resources such as water, minerals, and nutrients, reducing crop yield. To address this problem, a study was conducted to examine the characteristics of Gomphrena globosa in three environments. The findings showed a positive relationship between traits studied, including height, weight (dry and fresh), leaf area, leaf length, width, and root length. Interestingly, the plant leaves' width stood out as the factor contributing to its overall height. Location two was identified as favorable for the growth and development of Gomphrena globosa plants. To minimize losses in crop yield caused by this weed species, removing or controlling Gomphrena globosa populations is recommended while emphasizing effective population management techniques.
Abd-ElGawad, A., El Gendy, A. E.-N., El-Amier, Y., Gaara, A., Omer, E., Al-Rowaily, S., Assaeed, A., Al-Rashed, S., and Elshamy, A. (2020). Essential oil of Bassia muricata: Chemical characterization, antioxidant activity, and allelopathic effect on the weed Chenopodium murale. Saudi journal of biological sciences 27, 1900-1906 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.018.
Almas, M. H., Shah, R. A., Tahir, S. M. H., Manzoor, M., Shafiq, M., Shah, M. H., Hashmi, M. M., Ali, M., Bhatti, M. H. T., and Sami, A. (2023). The Effect of Substrate, Growth Condition and Nutrient Application Methods in Morphological and Commercial Attributes of Hybrid Rose (Rosa indica L.) Cv. Kardinal. Journal of Applied Research in Plant Sciences 4, 356-362 https://doi.org/10.38211/joarps.2023.04.01.44.
Bajwa, A. A., Zulfiqar, U., Sadia, S., Bhowmik, P., and Chauhan, B. S. (2019). A global perspective on the biology, impact and management of Chenopodium album and Chenopodium murale: two troublesome agricultural and environmental weeds. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26, 5357-5371 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-04104-y.
Bana, R. S., Kumar, V., Sangwan, S., Singh, T., Kumari, A., Dhanda, S., Dawar, R., Godara, S., and Singh, V. (2022). Seed Germination Ecology of Chenopodium album and Chenopodium murale. Biology 11, 1599 https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11111599.
Cai, Y., Sun, M., and Corke, H. (2003). Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the Amaranthaceae. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 51, 2288-2294 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030045u.
Catarino, R., Gaba, S., and Bretagnolle, V. (2019). Experimental and empirical evidence shows that reducing weed control in winter cereal fields is a viable strategy for farmers. Scientific reports 9, 9004 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45315-8.
Chamkhi, I., Charfi, S., El Hachlafi, N., Mechchate, H., Guaouguaou, F.-E., El Omari, N., Bakrim, S., Balahbib, A., Zengin, G., and Bouyahya, A. (2022). Genetic diversity, antimicrobial, nutritional, and phytochemical properties of Chenopodium album: A comprehensive review. Food Research International 154, 110979 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.110979.
Council, N. R. (1989). "Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation," National Academies Press https://doi.org/10.17226/1398.
Crossman, N., Bryan, B., and Cooke, D. (2011). An invasive plant and climate change threat index for weed risk management: Integrating habitat distribution pattern and dispersal process. Ecological Indicators 11, 183-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.10.011.
Grodzinski, B., Boesel, I., and Horton, R. F. (1983). Light stimulation of ethylene release from leaves of Gomphrena globosa. Plant physiology 71, 588-593 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.71.3.588.
Khan, I. H., Javaid, A., and Naqvi, S. F. (2021). Molecular characterization of Penicillium expansum isolated from grapes and its management by leaf extract of Chenopodium murale. International Journal of Phytopathology 10, 29-35 DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.010.01.3506.
Kugler, F., Stintzing, F. C., and Carle, R. (2007). Characterisation of betalain patterns of differently coloured inflorescences from Gomphrena globosa. and Bougainvillea sp. by HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS n. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 637-648 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0897-0.
Kulakow, P. A. (2018). Genetic characterization of grain amaranth. In "Amaranth Biology, Chemistry, and Technology", pp. 9-22. CRC Press https://doi.org/10.1201/9781351069601.
Kulan, E. G., and Kaya, M. D. (2023). Effects of Weed-Control Treatments and Plant Density on Root Yield and Sugar Content of Sugar Beet. Sugar Tech, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-023-01249-0.
Kumar, D. L., Kulkarni, B. S., Pavan Kumar, P., and Rekha, B. (2022). Studies on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in Gomphrena (Gomphrena globosa.) genotypes https://dx.doi.org/10.22271/tpi.
Monteiro, A., and Santos, S. (2022). Sustainable approach to weed management: The role of precision weed management. Agronomy 12, 118 https://dx.doi.org/10.22271/tpi.
Salustriano, F. R., Monreal, A. C. D., das Neves, S. C., de Oliveira, G. M., de Oliveira, D. D. M., Vilela, M. L. B., do Nascimento, V. A., Martins, A. C. F., Saroja, B., and Karuppusamy, A. (2022). The ethanolic extract of Gomphrena celosioides Mart. does not alter reproductive performance or embryo-fetal development, nor does it cause chromosomal damage. Pharmaceutics 14, 2369 https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112369.
SAMI, A., HAIDER, M., MEERAN, M., ALI, M., ABBAS, A., ALI, Q., and UMAR, M. (2023). EXPLORING MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS VARIATION IN CHENOPODIUM MURALE: A COMPREHENSIVE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS. Bulletin of Biological and Allied Sciences Research 2023, 43-43 https://doi.org/10.54112/bbasr.v2023i1.43.
Sherf, A. F., and MacNab, A. A. (1986). "Vegetable diseases and their control," John Wiley & Sons.
Van Acker, R. C., Swanton, C. J., and Weise, S. F. (1993). The critical period of weed control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed Science 41, 194-200.
Wang, M., Wu, L., and Zhang, J. (2009). Impacts of root sulfate deprivation on growth and elements concentration of globe amaranth (Gomphrena globosa.) under hydroponic condition. Plant, Soil and Environment 55, 484-493.doi 1960 pp.693 pp. ref.bibls.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 MZ HAIDER, A SAMI, HSUD MAZHAR, J AKRAM, BU NISA, M UMAR, MW MEERAN
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. © The Author(s)